The Old Man and the Sea is a 1999 paint-on-glass-animated short film by Russian animator Aleksandr Petrov, based on the novel of the same name by Ernest Hemingway.
Work on the film began in March 1997. It took Aleksandr Petrov and his son Dmitri Petrov (who helped his father) until April 1999 to paint each of the 29,000+ frames. The film’s technique, pastel oil paintings on glass, is mastered by only a handful of animators in the world. Petrov used his fingertips in addition to various paintbrushes to paint on different glass sheets positioned on multiple levels, each covered with slow-drying oil paints.
After photographing each frame painted on the glass sheets, which was four times larger than the usual A4-sized canvas, he had to slightly modify the painting for the next frame and so on. For the shooting of the frames a special adapted motion-control camera system was built, probably the most precise computerized animation stands ever made. On this, an IMAX camera was mounted, and a video-assist camera was then attached to the IMAX camera. [source]